Making the Mouse Blastocyst: Past, Present, and Future. Gerovska D & Araúzo-Bravo MJ. Theiler Stagesdivides mouse development into 26 prenatal and 2 postnatal stages. Include a little bit of milk in her diet on a regular basis along with soya chunks. mouse - circulation is closed, afferent arterial blood to the red pulp sinusoids, and to the marginal zone sinus. Simulation includes trophectoderm formation in “position-based” model, blastocoel growth and endoderm formation by differential adhesion and directional signal mechanisms. A high-resolution anatomical atlas of the transcriptome in the mouse embryo. Many different … Embryonic Development of the Deer Mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus. Tadashi Goto, Akira Endo, Dose‐ and stage‐related sex difference in the incidence of cytosine arabinoside induced digit anomalies in the mouse fetus, Teratology, 10.1002/tera.1420350106, 35, 1, … Biol. [2], O'Rahilly R. (1979). Baby House Mice. (2017). Histology atlas of the developing mouse hepatobiliary system with emphasis on embryonic days 9.5-18.5. Based upon 2013 transcriptome analysis. Interactions between trophoblast cells and the maternal and fetal circulation in the mouse placenta. She can mate immediately after giving birth, meaning mice can birth a second litter in as little as 25 days after the first. Without understanding normal development the molecular biologists don't stand a hope of understanding what their gene knock out has done. Genealogies of mouse inbred strains. PMID: 13207763. Am. Spiral arteries then converge at the trophoblast giant cell layer and empty into straight trophoblast-lined "canals". Histology atlas of the developing mouse heart with emphasis on E11.5 to E18.5. The suckling rat as a model for immunonutrition studies in early life. lung buds originate as an outgrowth from the ventral wall of the foregut where lobar division occurs, conducting epithelial tubes surrounded by thick mesenchyme are formed, extensive airway branching, bronchioles are produced, increasing number of capillaries in close contact with cuboidal epithelium and the beginning of alveolar epithelium development, alveolar ducts and air sacs are developed, secondary septation occurs, marked increase of the number and size of capillaries and alveoli. By Karen Robbins. third fusion - in the caudal diencephalon (rostrally and caudally), followed by complete closure of the telencephalic neuropore at the midpoint of the telencephalic roof, then complete closure of the metencephalic neuropore at the rostral part of the metencephalic roof, fourth fusion - at the original caudal end of the neural plate (rostrally), caudal neuropore completely closed at the level of the future 33rd somite, a molecular atlas of gene expression for the developing organs of the GenitoUrinary (GU) tract, a high resolution molecular anatomy that highlights development of the GU system, mouse strains to facilitate developmental and functional studies within the GU system, rapid access to primary data via the GUDMAP database. Once there are eight cells, the cells start to differentiate based on the kind of cells that they will later become. Little MH, Brennan J, Georgas K, Davies JA, Davidson DR, Baldock RA, Beverdam A, Bertram JF, Capel B, Chiu HS, Clements D, Cullen-McEwen L, Fleming J, Gilbert T, Herzlinger D, Houghton D, Kaufman MH, Kleymenova E, Koopman PA, Lewis AG, McMahon AP, Mendelsohn CL, Mitchell EK, Rumballe BA, Sweeney DE, Valerius MT, Yamada G, Yang Y & Yu J. Fed. House Mouse Life Cycle Reproduction. One of the first steps in preventing adult fish to eat baby platies is to know how to recognize the signs of pregnancy and prepare the aquarium for the time the female platy will give birth. [36], Marginal zone - only in mouse and rat between white and red pulp an additional B-cell compartment. See also the Discussion Page for other references listed by year and References on this current page. (1962) Altman PL. RatWitschi E. Rat Development. Pregnant rats, like any other animals, have higher nutritional requirements. The gestation period for the mouse ranges from 18 to 22 days. Dev. Expression levels of GR in the hippocampus and UCN3 in the perifornical area are low at birth but increase significantly during the SHRP, both reach maximum expression level at pnd 12. second phase - mice developed past the SHRP exhibit enhanced corticosterone basal levels and a response of ACTH and corticosterone to mild novelty stress. Immunol. Neurulation in the mouse: manner and timing of neural tube closure. Hairless mutant mouse - wave of hair loss in a rostral to caudal sequence starting at 3 weeks of age, first identified in the 1930's. You currently don’t have access to this book, however you Formation of the distal portion of the mouse urethra receives substantial contribution from the preputial swellings that form the preputial-urethral groove and subsequently the preputial-urethral canal, the later of which is subdivided by a fusion event to form the distal portion of the mouse penile urethra. While this mechanism surely accounts for development of the proximal portion of the mouse penile urethra, we suggest that the distal portion of the mouse penile urethra forms via a series of epithelial fusion events. Do not intentionally breed mice or you may risk losing the mother and the babies, which is rare, but sad. In particular discusses Homeobox genes. This much-needed resource covers monitoring of the cardiovascular system, gestational programming of chronic adult disease, epigenetic regulation, gene imprinting, and stem cells. In the first trimester: You feel really tired and possibly nauseous. The effectiveness of the synthesis is demonstrated by reporting the classification outcome for two classes of cervical SHG images collected from mice at two different stages of normal pregnancy. CRH expression was decreased significantly, expression of urocortin 3 (UCN3) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) remained high, with a small decrease at pnd 16. The staging by "days" relate to in the female presence of a vaginal plug indicating that the mating occurred, see timed pregnancy. Newborn. and Dittmer DS. (2009). (1954) Anat Rec. Change in cell types and tissue formation as a function of mouse developmental stage. Otis EM and Brent R. Equivalent ages in mouse and human embryos. (2009). (1986). OTIS EM & BRENT R. (1954). Dev. Toxicol Pathol , 37, 395-414. Two cell types, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and squamous epithelial cells, predominate in the exfoliative cytology of mouse vagina. How to Know if Platy Fish is Pregnant? Light blue - indicate mesenchymal condensations. can purchase separate chapters directly from the table of contents Pregnancy lasts about 40 weeks, counting from the first day of your last normal period. Molecular recording of mammalian embryogenesis. Lindström NO, McMahon JA, Guo J, Tran T, Guo Q, Rutledge E, Parvez RK, Saribekyan G, Schuler RE, Liao C, Kim AD, Abdelhalim A, Ruffins SW, Thornton ME, Baskin L, Grubbs B, Kesselman C & McMahon AP. Biol., Washington DC, pp. Pregnancy lasts about 40 weeks, and has three phases or stages: the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters. Complete in vitro oogenesis: retrospects and prospects. ייִדיש | Tiếng Việt    These external translations are automated and may not be accurate. It has been suggested that the entire penile urethra of the mouse forms via direct canalization of the endodermal urethral plate. Neurulation in the mouse. The imaged mouse was carrying a litter of 15 implantation sites. Application of in utero electroporation and live imaging in the analyses of neuronal migration during mouse brain development. Crawford LW, Foley JF & Elmore SA. (2018). (2004). The outer cells will form the placenta and the inner layers will form the fetus. Takaoka K & Hamada H. (2012). Biol. (2016). Sakai Y. (2014). Steiniger BS. humans - circulation is open, no connection from capillaries to sinuses in the red pulp. (homeobox is 183bp encoding a 61 amino acid DNA-binding domain). (2016). The embryo first divides into two, then into four, eight and so on. Symptoms vary from week to week during pregnancy. Chen VS, Morrison JP, Southwell MF, Foley JF, Bolon B & Elmore SA. Rec. [26], A high-resolution description of the developing murine genitourinary tract from Theiler stage (TS) 17 (E10.5) through to TS27 (E19.5) and then to postnatal day 3 was published in 2007.[27]. Early pregnancy factor is required at two important stages of embryonic development in the mouse. Histology Atlas of the Developing Prenatal and Postnatal Mouse Central Nervous System, with Emphasis on Prenatal Days E7.5 to E18.5. Three classes of SHG images for day 6, day 12 and day 18 of the 19-day mouse gestation period are considered. Fine time course expression analysis identifies cascades of activation and repression and maps a putative regulator of mammalian sex determination. Stages of pregnancy. Pinkerton KE & Joad JP. The postnatal development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the mouse. Uterine radial artery branches into 5-10 dilated spiral arteries. العربية | català | 中文 | References | Discussion Page | Journal Searches | 2019 References | 2020 References. (2013). မြန်မာ | Pilipino | Polskie | português | ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦੇ | Română | русский | Español | Swahili | Svensk | ไทย | Türkçe | The collapsible tables below contain a number of movies showing aspects of mouse development. PMID: 26820524 DOI. This search now requires a manual link as the original PubMed extension has been disabled. A mouse's gestation period is only 21 days, and she can give birth to litters of up to nine babies, which means the population size can explode in just a matter of months. An example of a complete simulation of embryo development from 1 to 128 cells. If your mouse really trusts you (if she's the type who crawls onto you when you put your hand in, and is otherwise happy to see you) then you can hold the babies as early as 3 or 4 days. You will see some PMNs if the mouse is in early proestrus. Gude, W. D. (2012). (2016). Pregnancy is divided into three distinct stages: the first trimester, second trimester, and third trimester. (2016). or buy the full version. 2. Suddenly it was necessary to understand development in order to understand the effect of knocking out the gene. The original and most widely used is the Theiler Stages system, which divides mouse development into 26 prenatal and 2 postnatal stages. Herculano-Houzel S, Mota B & Lent R. (2006). Global gene expression analysis of murine limb development. Early in-utero exposure to myriad environmental insults leads to abnormal fetal development or the termination of pregnancy, underscoring the importance of accurate and convenient early detection strategies. This Nature paper[34] chart shows the origins and relationships of inbred mouse strains. (TREYE-mess-turs) Find out what's happening with you and your baby in these three stages. A pregnancy test can easily confirm if you are pregnant. Can go to new homes now However, in the case of human, direct canalization of the urethral plate occurs in the glans, while fusion events are involved in formation of the urethra within the penile shaft, a pattern exactly opposite to that of the mouse. [25], Mouse E11.0 to E12.0 shows the critical transition in the gonad from a bipotential to sexually-differentiated state. We talk about three stages of pregnancy: first trimester, second trimester and third trimester. , 117, 275-88. References also appear on this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing. After a 21-day pregnancy, these house mouse pups are born naked, blind and dependent upon their mother for everything. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. (2013). Through review of the recent literature in combination with new data, it is unlikely that the entire mouse urethra is formed from the endodermal urethral plate due in part to the fact that from E14 onward the urethral plate is not present in the distal aspect of the genital tubercle. B. Anne Croy, Aureo T. Yamada, ... S. Lee Adamson. Taher L, Collette NM, Murugesh D, Maxwell E, Ovcharenko I & Loots GG. Downs and Davies Stagesis a more recent (1993) staging of gastrulating mouse embryos by morphological landmarks in the dissecting microscope. The deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus)[1] lives in the Americas and is closely related to the white-footed mouse. Cell Dev. Histological atlas of the laboratory mouse. اردو | Chan WY & Tam PP. Top. PMID: 400868 Beck JA, Lloyd S, Hafezparast M, Lennon-Pierce M, Eppig JT, Festing MF & Fisher EM. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. 中國傳統的 | français | Deutsche | עִברִית | हिंदी | bahasa Indonesia | italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | High quality pure intact total RNA extracted of mouse uterus at different stages of pregnancy. Histology Atlas of the Developing Mouse Hepatobiliary Hemolymphatic Vascular System with Emphasis on Embryonic Days 11.5-18.5 and Early Postnatal Development. The Three Stages of Pregnancy (1 st, 2 nd, and 3 rd Trimester) Conception to about the 12th week of pregnancy marks the first trimester. The open microcirculation in human spleens: a three-dimensional approach. In addition to revealing a number of disparities in timing between human and mouse development, these data, directly assembled from human tissue. endothelial cells derive from the allantois. This page was last modified on 20 May 2020, at 14:23. Mouse embryology really expanded when molecular biologists used mice for gene knockouts. The highest incidence of hypospadias in humans occurs at the junction of these two different developmental mechanisms. Mouse Genome completed December 2002, a draft sequence and analysis of the genome of the C57BL/6J mouse strain. 304-314. Skarnes WC, Rosen B, West AP, Koutsourakis M, Bushell W, Iyer V, Mujica AO, Thomas M, Harrow J, Cox T, Jackson D, Severin J, Biggs P, Fu J, Nefedov M, de Jong PJ, Stewart AF & Bradley A. Adamson SL, Lu Y, Whiteley KJ, Holmyard D, Hemberger M, Pfarrer C & Cross JC. J. Obstet. Introduction. If the mouse is in proestrus, you will see mostly nucleated and cornified epithelial cells. Cellular scaling rules for rodent brains. Online Savolainen SM, Foley JF & Elmore SA. first phase - (pnd 1 (birth) to pnd 12) corresponds to the hypo-responsive period (SHRP) in the rat. Pérez-Cano FJ, Franch À, Castellote C & Castell M. (2012). Those interested in the mouse reproductive cycle should also look at the mouse estrous cycle. Savolainen SM, Foley JF & Elmore SA. Athanasas-Platsis S(1), Corcoran CM, Kaye PL, Cavanagh AC, Morton H. Author information: (1)University of Queensland, Department of Surgery, Royal Brisbane Hospital, Australia. The histogenetic potential of neural plate cells of early-somite-stage mouse embryos. Three classes of SHG images for day 6, day 12 and day 18 of the 19-day mouse gestation period are considered. Basal corticosterone levels were low and novelty exposure did not enhance corticosterone or ACTH levels. The process of spermatogenesis takes approximately 35 days: The diploid germ cells, spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), are located on the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubules. Kessel, M. and Gruss, P. Science 249 374-379 (1990), An early review of the genes, and method of identifying them, involved in early mouse development. [29], Links: respiratory | Respiratory Comparison | Mouse Human Respiratory | Mouse respiratory stages | mouse | rat | rabbit | Timeline Comparisons, The following images are from a recent study of the development of bronchial branching in he mouse between E10 to E14.[32]. The female is usually pregnant within the first four days, but it gave the boys some company. Munger SC, Natarajan A, Looger LL, Ohler U & Capel B. The relevance of the mouse as a model of human hypospadias is discussed.". This mouse page is organised to show a detailed day by day development of sytems and features with approximate timing of key events. A typical female mouse can birth between five and 10 litters per year. [17] (See also Follicle size graph). , 2012, 537310. Primitive spermatogonia cells transform without cell division into more differentiating A1 spermatogonia that undergo 6 mitotic and 2 meiotic divisions to eventually form haploid spermatids. This technology actually requires development of defined breeding programs, pseudo-pregnancy, in vitro fertilization, molecular biology, and good old fashioned histology. This paper presents an image processing approach for distinguishing three pregnancy stages of mice using Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy images. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Retrieved from Hard to handle 21-28 ( 3 to 4 weeks) "Flea" stage comes to an end. Provides instruction on how to collect pre-clinical data on pregnancy in mouse models for eventual use in human applications, Describes the angiogenic tree the mother’s uterus develops to support pregnancy and the monitoring of pregnancy-induced cardiovascular changes, Educates readers on placental cell lineages, decidual development including immune cells, epigenetic regulation, gene imprinting, stem cells, birth and lactation, Discusses how stress, environmental toxicants and other manipulations impact upon placental function and pregnancy success. Davis SW & Keisler JL. embryonic day (E 10) - placenta divided into three layers associated with maternal decidual cells. Kleven GA & Ronca AE. Yu H, Wessels A, Chen J, Phelps AL, Oatis J, Tint GS & Patel SB. Glycolysis in the mouse uterus during the early post‐implantation stages of pregnancy and the effects of acute doses of ethanol R. N. Murdoch Department of Biological Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, 2308, Australia Transcriptional control of lung morphogenesis. More? This slide show will discuss what occurs to both the mother and baby during each trimester. Olfactory stimuli are known to induce true pseudopregnancy (as shown by deciduoma formation) in crowded all-female groups (van der Lee and Boot, 1955 , 1956 ). This cycle continues until the mouse dies. (2011). Reprod. PMID: 19359541 DOI. PMID: 22899949 DOI. pancreas - "In contrast to the published data from mouse embryos, during human pancreas development, we detected only a single-phase of Neurogenin 3 (NEUROG3) expression and endocrine differentiation from approximately 8 weeks, before which Nirenberg and Kim homeobox 2.2 (NKX2.2) was not observed in the pancreatic progenitor cell population. Search Pubmed: Mouse Development | Mouse Embryology. Start to wean from mom 28-35 days (4 weeks) Fully weaned. A single female is capable of producing up to eight litters per year with an average of six pups per litter. Cell fate decisions and axis determination in the early mouse embryo. A classification is performed based on morphological features previously used for such SHG images, wavelet-based texture … Nishimura YV, Shinoda T, Inaguma Y, Ito H & Nagata K. (2012). A pregnant mouse has distinct bumps on the sides, while a fat one is just large. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. (2021, January 8) Embryology Mouse Development. PMID 13207763, MouseTheiler K. The House Mouse: Atlas of Mouse Development (1972, 1989) Springer-Verlag, NY. (2006). However, once the babies are born, don't clean the cage for a while. , 55, 89-98. Thick black lines - indicate cartilage as determined by alcian blue staining. Histology Atlas of the Developing Mouse Hepatobiliary Hemolymphatic Vascular System with Emphasis on Embryonic Days 11.5-18.5 and Early Postnatal Development. "[35], White pulp - Human white pulp has three stromal cell types of different phenotype and location. 120(1):33-63. Early human development and the chief sources of information on staged human embryos. , 9, 273-80. First trimester (week 1–week 12) During the first trimester your body undergoes many changes. Early symptoms of pregnancy may include constipation, headache, heartburn, extreme tiredness, and upset stomach. Note - cell colour coding is different from adjacent live imaging study. A high-resolution anatomical ontology of the developing murine genitourinary tract. The table below gives an approximate comparison of human, mouse and rat embryos based upon Carnegie staging. ed. Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, Histology and Embryology, University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, Genetically Engineered Mouse Core, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA, Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital and Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. A conditional knockout resource for the genome-wide study of mouse gene function. I. This stage starts at the moment of conception. These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table. Conserved and Divergent Features of Human and Mouse Kidney Organogenesis. , 120, 33-63. Chan MM, Smith ZD, Grosswendt S, Kretzmer H, Norman TM, Adamson B, Jost M, Quinn JJ, Yang D, Jones MG, Khodaverdian A, Yosef N, Meissner A & Weissman JS. (1987). And it does appears she has bumps in the first picture. There are several systems for staging mouse development. Toxicol Pathol , 44, 705-25. that do not complete cytokinesis and stay connected by an intercellular bridge. Histology atlas of the developing mouse heart with emphasis on E11.5 to E18.5. Fore-limb and hind-limb buds for stages E9.5 to E13.5. (B and F) Gestational day 7.5. This paper presents an image processing approach for distinguishing three pregnancy stages of mice using Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy images. (2007). Evaluating a large number of aged-matched embryos or neonates likely will require setting up timed matings. The Mose oocyte reaches a maximum size of 70 μm in diameter in a follicle 125 μm in diameter, followed by ongoing follicle growth theca interns and antrum development., Graphs show mouse and other species (Human, Pig, Hamster) comparison in follicle and oocyte size growth. The stage of estrous can be determined by the types and relative numbers of cells present: If the mouse is in diestrus, you will see mostly polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and some epithelial cells. Mesenchyme (red) and epithelium (blue) the study used knockout mice to show the role of Wnt signalling in branching morphogenesis. Clin. Contrasting mechanisms of penile urethral formation in mouse and human. The light spot on their left side is a tummy full of milk. first fusion - at the level of the intermediate point between the third and fourth somites (caudal myelencephalon) both rostrally and caudally. At this stage of pregnancy, inguinal fat pads and intestine cover the uterus. The mammalian respiratory system and critical windows of exposure for children's health. Stage Human Mouse Features Embryonic week 4 to 5: E9 to E11.5: lung buds originate as an outgrowth from the ventral wall of the foregut where lobar division occurs Pseudoglandular week 5 to 17 E11.5 to E16.5: conducting epithelial tubes surrounded by thick mesenchyme are formed, extensive airway branching Canalicular week 16 to 25 E16.5 to E17.5 Maeda Y, Davé V & Whitsett JA. (2009). Origin and formation of the first two distinct cell types of the inner cell mass in the mouse embryo. Later the zygote becomes a blastocyst. Griffin J, Emery BR, Huang I, Peterson CM & Carrell DT. Late gestational lung hypoplasia in a mouse model of the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. [36], Red pulp - mouse and human red pulp sinusoid circulation differs. Morris SA, Teo RT, Li H, Robson P, Glover DM & Zernicka-Goetz M. (2010). Joining the ranks of much referenced mouse resources, The Guide to Investigation of Mouse Pregnancy is the only manual providing needed content on pregnancy in animal models for translational medicine and research. Different strains have different averages within this range but even within a single strain, and even for a single female, there can be significant differences from one pregnancy to the next. RNA is ideal for Northern blotting, ribonuclease protection assay, SI nuclease assay, RT-PCR/Q-PCR analysis, rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and purification of mRNA for library construction. 2-3 somite stage). Males & females need to be separated. Theiler K. The House Mouse: Atlas of Mouse Development (1972, 1989) Springer-Verlag, NY. There have bee… (2002). The second trimester is weeks 13 to 27, and the third trimester starts about 28 weeks and lasts until birth. 1 Day. Comparative analysis of follicle morphology and oocyte diameter in four mammalian species (mouse, hamster, pig, and human). After copulation, it will take a couple of weeks for physical signs of platy fish pregnancy to appear. Because of this exceptional fecundity, mixing male and female mice into the same cage can be dangerous--unless, of course, you want babies. Swartley OM, Foley JF, Livingston DP, Cullen JM & Elmore SA. Enter "Flea" stage,very quick & jumpy. Baby Mouse Development from Birth to 5 weeks. There are over 450 different strains of inbred research mice, and these strains have recently been organized into a chart. (2007). [37], Contrasting mechanisms of penile urethral formation in mouse and human[38] "This paper addresses the developmental mechanisms of formation of the mouse and human penile urethra and the possibility that two disparate mechanisms are at play. The weeks are grouped into three trimesters. (2000). (2018). Exp. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. High expression of CRH in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Sakai Y. A few hours after conception the zygote starts traveling towards the uterus where it will start to divide and grow. (C and G) Gestational day 14.5. About Translations). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. second fusion - at the original rostral end of the neural plate (rostrodorsally). Swartley OM, Foley JF, Livingston DP, Cullen JM & Elmore SA. Provide a higher protein diet. (1989). (2016). Mouse age data[28], Note that while human third trimester fetus has regular respiratory breathing movements, the common mouse model (C57BL/6J} completely lacks these movements. Gynecol. Soc. Offering detailed and integrated information on how drugs, biologics, stress, and manipulations impact pregnancy in the mouse model, this reference highlights techniques used to analyze mouse pregnancy. Equivalent ages in mouse and human embryos. First trimester. Development of the human pancreas from foregut to endocrine commitment. The GenitoUrinary Development Molecular Anatomy Project (GUDMAP) is a consortium of laboratories working to provide the scientific and medical community with tools to facilitate research. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation. External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. By this stage of pregnancy, the gravid uterus has distended the abdomen and displaced the inguinal fat pads and intestinal tract. Hindlimbs are morphologically delayed by about half a day. Once the doe's pregnancy is confirmed, you need to give it a richer diet that is formulated for the requirements of pregnancy.