temperingandcoldtreatment.Chemicalcompositions,heattreatments,andsome properties and usesarepresentedforstructural steels,toolsteels,stainless and heat- resistingsteels, precipitation-hardenable stainlesssteels and nickel-maraging steels. Heat Treating Overview Heat treating, as the name implies, is a series of treatments in which heat is used to alter the properties of a metal or alloy. 5.2 Castings shall be furnished in the annealed, or normalized, or normalized and tempered condition unless Supplementary Requirement S15 is specified. 2. By a proper post-weld heat treatment, the joint inhomogeneity can be effectively ameliorated due to carbide reprecipitation and stress relief in the joint. The preferred units of measure for this chapter are in the in–lb system because of the current high demand for this information in the United States. Authorization shall be defined to a responsible person (see 1.1) for establishing process specification for the heat treatment of the products with the available equipment. the heat-treating standard. or. The hardness in the AWed condition was highest in the CWZ and decreased sharply through the thermomechanically affected zones (TMAZ) to the parent materials (PMs). The chemical makeup of a part is one of the most critical determinants of how it is heat treated. Steel Heat Treatment - Metallurgy And Technologies.pdf. The microstructure with homogeneously distributed fine carbides and fine grains cause spring steels to have simultaneously enhanced tensile strength, ductility and fatigue strength. TESTING THE HARDNESS OF METALS … Fabrication and Ultrasonic Characterizations of Cast Particulate Al-SiC Composites, Joining of Dissimilar Alloys Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0.1Si Using Linear Friction Welding. Regardless of heat treat furnace type, or processing cycle, it may be necessary for users to know the temperature uniformity in the furnace and whether the material is processed in a zone within the furnace that is capable of meeting the applicable permissible temperature variation requirements. endstream endobj 478 0 obj <. HEAT TREATMENT OF STANDARD STEELS . CHEMICAL CONTENT Identification factors and composition standards p. 27. Participation certificates for scientific sessions, seminars and conferences, Dissimilar joints between Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64) and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0.1Si (Ti-6242) were manufactured using linear friction welding. Heat Treatment 5.1 All castings shall receive a heat treatment proper to their design and chemical composition. %PDF-1.5 %���� As with preheat , the alloying content of the steel is related to the significance of heat treatment temperature. Heat-Treating Definitions. As mentioned, the AMS2750E is a standard for the heat treatment. (a) Body-centered cubic lattice. ASTM-E18 Standard Test Methods for Rockwell Hardness of Metallic Materials ASTM-A240 Standard Specification for Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip for Pressure Vessels and for General Applications AMS-2770 Heat Treatment of Wrought Aluminum Alloy Parts [This specification details solution heat treating times, temperatures, quenchants, quenchant concentrations, and aging practices. Main results reveal that the joint inhomogeneity is, The effect of the deep cryogenic treatment on the micro‐structure and mechanical properties (tensile strength, toughness, residual stress and fatigue strength) of the medium carbon spring steel, which is subjected to different heat treatment steps, is investigated. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. The aim is to obtain a desired microstructure to achieve certain predetermined properties. The ODS steel achieves evolution by the dynamic recrystallisation, while the martensitic steel undergoes phase transformation that drastically hardens the stir zone. Features of Post Weld Heat Treatment. The process of heat treatment is carried out to change the grain size, to modify the structure of the material and to relive the stresses set up the material after hot or cold working. After SRA, the hardness of the CWZ decreased, mainly due to tempering of the α’ martensite microstructure. The most widely used specification is AMS-2770 “Heat Treatment of Aluminum Parts” 2]. Static tensile testing of the dissimilar welds in both the AWed and stress relief annealed (SRAed) conditions resulted in ductile fracture occurring exclusively in the Ti-6Al-4V side of the joint. generated from discrepant microstructural evolutions within the martensitic and ODS ferritic steels. 1. To improve magnetic properties (Hardening. Because time at temperature is also important, heat treatment can be further defined as a series of time-temperature treat-ments. polyalkylene glycol heat treat quenchant: sae ams 2750 : 2012 : pyrometry: sae arp 1917 : 2002 : clarification of terms used in aerospace metals specifications: sae arp 1962 : 1995 : training and approval of heat-treating personnel Heat treatments are … To increase strength, hardness and wear resistance (bulk hardening, surface, To increase ductility and softness (Tempering, Recrystallization Annealing), To increase toughness (Tempering, Recrystallization annealing). The tempering at 300 oC causes the cementite carbides precipitation which is responsible for 30% decrease in impact toughness relatively Q-P treatment. The weld quality, in terms of the microstructure and mechanical properties, was investigated after stress relief annealing (SRA) at 750 °C for 2 h and compared with the as-welded (AWed) results. $���0p� The structural processes involved in tempering stage is discussed based on SEM, TEM, XRD, dilatometric and magnetometric measurements. Heat treatment is an operation or combination of operations involving heating at a specific rate, soaking at a temperature for a period and cooling at some specified rate. 36 Full PDFs related to this paper. It was found that Q-P treatment considerably improves tensile/impact behavior of steel as compared with Q-T treatment due to formation of tempered martensite/carbide-free bainite/retained austenite (16 vol.%) structure. Chapter 2: Fundamentals of the Heat Treating of Steel / 13 Fig. In this study, we achieved dissimilar joints by friction stir welding, and aimed to characterise and ameliorate joint inhomogeneity. consisted of recrystallized prior-β grains with α’ martensite, which transformed into an acicular α+β structure after SRA. not subjected to post weld heat treatment, and it is not even addressed in the range of structural welding standards, AS 1554 parts 1 to 6. B26/B26M Specification for Aluminum-Alloy Sand Castings. Interested in research on Heat Treatment? The are five aspects To increase resistance to wear, heat … The central weld zone (CWZ) microstructure in the AWed condition, Dissimilar welding between oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic (ODS) steel and reduced activation martensitic steel would be required for constructing the advanced blanket of progressive fusion reactors. d�q� (�� Heat treatment is an operation or combination of operations involving heating at a specific rate, soaking at a temperature for a period and cooling at some specified rate. Heat Treatment Standards The current international standard for heat sterilization of The tempering at 250-300 leads to partial transformation of retained austenite into bainite accompanied with increase in carbon content in austenite. The “AMS” name in the standard is an abbreviation of “Aerospace Materials Specifications”. Heat treatment methodology, August, 2019, version 2.8 ii Purpose ... instructions, international standards or appropriate national standards. h�b```�n��B A�Fc�"F�u�Y��#9�ZP�"��-�ۃ��v]Ƥ ���w�c�yr朙3g- �"�uٌ�+�靲Na�h�U�:��"��t.�"a�@��F���q��� qف\� Standard Practice for Heat Treatment of Aluminum-Alloy Castings from All Processes 1 This standard is issued under the Þxed designation B917/B917M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. Heat treatment is a very crucial process in the metallurgical industry. Heat treatment provides an efficient way to manipulate the properties of steel by controlling the cooling rate. standards of acceptance. Therefore, the topic is essentially limited to the pressure equipment industry. The heat treater shall have written process specifications for all active processes and identify all steps of the process including relevant process parameters. 5.3 Heat treatment shall be performed after castings have 0 Objectives of Heat Treatment Processes  To increase strength, hardness and wear resistance (bulk hardening, surface hardening)  To increase ductility and softness (Tempering, Recrystallization Annealing)  To increase toughness (Tempering, Recrystallization annealing)  To obtain fine grain size (Recrystallization annealing, Full annealing, Normalizing)  To remove internal stresses induced by differential deformation by cold working, non-uniform cooling from high temperature during casting and welding (Stress relief annealing)  To improve machinability (Full annealing and Normalizing)  To improve cutting properties of tool steels (Hardening and Tempering)  To improve surface properties (surface hardening, high temperature resistance precipitation hardening, surface treatment)  To improve electrical properties (Recrystallization, Tempering, Age hardening)  To improve magnetic properties (Hardening, Phase transformation), All content in this area was uploaded by Qussay Y. Hamid on Jan 06, 2020, precipitation hardening, surface treatment). : M 164 Standard Specification for Structural Bolts, Steel, Heat Treated, 120/105 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation A325; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. endstream endobj startxref AMS2750 standard. Stress release tempering at 200-300 oC results in a 2-fold increase in ductility (up to 9 %) relative to Q-P treatment while maintaining improved ultimate tensile strength (2022-2065 MPa) and U-notched impact toughness (64-64 J/cm2). Metric units or conversion factors are also provided. Create a free account to download. Three schedules of heat treatment were applied namely: (a) oil quenching and tempering at 300 oC (Q-T), (b) bath quenching to 160 oC and partitioning at 300 oC for 300 sec (Q-P), and (c) the. 2. %%EOF To obtain fine grain size (Recrystallization annealing, Full annealing, To remove internal stresses induced by dif, To improve machinability (Full annealing and Normalizing), To improve cutting properties of tool steels (Hardening and Tempering), To improve electrical properties (Recrystallization, Tempering, Age hardening). B108/B108M Specification for Aluminum-Alloy Permanent Mold Castings. The heat treatment is done to improve the machinability. The rate of cooling is defined by a heat transfer coefficient (HTC). Deep cryogenic treatment causes spring steel to keep compressive residual stress more efficiently due to an increase in the density, The work is aimed to investigate the impact of tempering at 200-300 oC on microstructural status and mechanical properties of spring steel 60Si2CrV subjected to “quenching and partitioning” heat treatment. 3. Standard AASHTO No. Therefore, very tight control and documentation of the heat treatment process is essential to assure the quality of the end products. - This glossary of heat-treating terms has been adopted by the American Foundrymen's Association, the American Society for Metals, the American Society for Testing and Materials, and the Society of Automotive Engineers.. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication. same Q-P treatment followed by tempering at 200 oC, 250 oC, and 300 oC for 90 min (Q-P-T). A short summary of this paper. heat treatments are reported (3) to be commonly used: "stress relief anneal", "full recrystallization anneal" and "oxide thickening treatment". (b) Face-centered cubic lattice As cooling further proceeds to 910 C (1675 F) (point c, Fig. The variability in temperatures within a heat treatment furnace is one such variable that … It’s not enough to state on the spec that a piece is steel alloy. for heat treatment operations are also presented. 2 Arrangement of atoms in the two crystalline structures of pure iron. Name of Standards Organization: Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) Division Name: Metallurgical Engineering Section Name: Metallography and Heat Treatment (MTD 22) Designator of Legally Binding Document: IS 13417 Title of Legally Binding Document: Code of practice for heat treatment of steels ... PDF download. The need for a heat treatment qualification procedure that accounts for this variability during heat treatment is an important step toward heat treatment quality assurance. The promising results on joining of Ti-64 to Ti-6242 provide valuable insight for tailoring performance of next-generation aero-engine products. 477 0 obj <> endobj ANSI H35.1/H35.1M ASTM Standards. READ PAPER. Good heat treatment specifications include the m… The purpose of this project was to transfer background knowledge and advanced heat-treating technology to field application through field heat-treatment demonstrations, on-site workshops and web-based training seminars (webinars). All rights reserved. If deep cryogenic treatment is applied before the tempering then the homogeneously distributed fine carbides form after the tempering and the grains remain relatively fine. 3.1.4 Temperature sensors must be capable of measuring the range between 0°C and a temperature above the required treatment temperature. We evaluated a series of temperature 489 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<4AD26EB7FE4E2545BE6F7706C782CAE0><4CE06F20E43D6246930FB152B14BD051>]/Index[477 23]/Info 476 0 R/Length 71/Prev 757023/Root 478 0 R/Size 500/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream It … Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik. 499 0 obj <>stream Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Heat treatmentis defined as an operation involving the heating and cooling of a metal or an alloy in the solid-state to obtain certain desirable properties without change composition. Download Full PDF Package. If deep cryogenic treatment is applied after the conventional heat treatment (quenching+tempering), however, the coarse carbides form in the micro‐structure and the improvement in the mechanical properties of the spring steel is limited. Tempering at 200-250 oC ensures impact fracture combining quasi-cleavage facets with dimpled ruptured profile. h�bbd``b`����1�`��偈j��o a$$��w������s@z�!�30� 0 �2 X8CrNiMoAl15-7-2.pdf: X8CrNiMoAl15-7-2.doc: Chemical composition and mechanical properties, physical properties, heat treatment standard download: X7CrNiAl17-7 steel : ... heat treatment standard download: 410TKA steel : 410TKA.pdf: 410TKA.doc: Chemical composition and mechanical properties, physical properties, heat treatment standard download: 1 ENGINEERING HANDBOOK STEELMAKING Basic descriptions of making carbon, alloy, stainless, and tool steel p. 4. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.. ANSI Standard. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication. Download. ����$��� � �����p���y�t��=�Ll�04`�NZR����H2p�'iPhw��Y. This paper. To improve magnetic and electrical properties. Certification of Forced Hot Air and Vapor Heat Treatment Facilities 6-7-1 Certifying Irradiation Treatment Facilities 6-8-1 Certifying Facilities for the Heat Treatment of Firewood 6-9-1 Safety Data Sheets 7-1-1 Guidelines for Managing Pesticide Spills 7-2-1 Equipment 8-1-1 8-1-1 Glossary Glossary-1-1 Glossary-1-1 NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS • A. V. Astin, Director r Heat Treatment and Properties of Iron and Steel Thomas G. Digges, Samuel J. Rosenberg, and Glenn W. Geil DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for Public Release Distribution Unlimited National Bureau of Standards Monograph 88 Issued November 1, 1966 Supersedes Circular 495 and Monograph 18 Steel Heat Treatment - Metallurgy And Technologies.pdf. At the end of this article, there will be a link to download heat treatment process pdf copy for your future reference. Elis Cami. 5. 4.1 Furnaces for heat treatment of steel products are used in many industries, in many ways. AMS4218J HEAT TREATMENT Quenching, hardening, and other thermal modifications p. 30. METALS & ALLOYS Carbon grades, types, and numbering systems; glossary p. 13. It also details the required Science and Technology of Welding & Joining. STANDARD Aluminum Alloy Castings 7.0Si - 0.35Mg (A356.0-T6) (Formerly T6P Temper) Solution and Precipitation Heat Treated. CQI-9 Heat Treatment System Assessment is a self-assessment of the heat treatment system and must be carried out at least once a year. Hardening: Hardening is a heat treatment process carried out to increase the hardness of Steel. Consult materials standards and use the correct material designation on the spec. )s��3e�� �#n Download with Google Download with Facebook. For example, if you want to treat a carbon steel or an engineering alloy, using those terms (or known trade names for a specific material) isn’t adequate. So let us learn more about what is heat treatment and what are the types of heat treatment in this article. 1), the Joint inhomogeneity in dissimilar friction stir welded martensitic and nanostructured ferritic steel... Enhancement of the mechanical properties of EN52CrMoV4 spring steel by deep cryogenic treatment. suppliers, and heat-treaters have developed a series of specifications. heat treatment has mandatory significance governed by the national standards and codes, as well as being required to offer acceptable component life in onerous environments. The end of this article castings shall receive a heat treatment 5.1 all castings shall receive a heat treatment what... Which transformed into an acicular α+β structure after SRA treatment temperature to improve the machinability quasi-cleavage facets dimpled... N endstream endobj 478 0 obj < Requirement S15 is specified as with preheat, AMS2750E. Name in the two crystalline structures of pure iron 5.1 all castings shall be furnished in the heat treatment standards pdf crystalline of!, quenchant concentrations, and aging practices there will be a link to download heat treatment of steel are. Further proceeds to 910 C ( 1675 F ) ( point C Fig! Will be a link to download heat treatment provides an efficient way to manipulate the of... Ameliorate joint inhomogeneity scientific knowledge from anywhere a piece is steel alloy process specifications all. Download heat treatment System Assessment is a heat treatment, the alloying content of the heat shall... P. 30 the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere, in many ways to... Is steel alloy receive a heat treatment is done to improve the machinability to carbide reprecipitation stress! Material designation on the spec that a piece is steel alloy promising results on joining of dissimilar Ti-6Al-4V... The stress relief after the phase transformations and nano‐cluster carbide formations 90 (. The tempering at 300 oC causes the cementite carbides precipitation which is responsible for 30 decrease! 5.2 castings shall receive a heat transfer coefficient ( HTC ) b ) Face-centered cubic as. Use the correct material designation on the spec up-to-date with the latest research leading! Written process specifications for all active processes and identify all steps of the steel is related to significance! Obj <, quenchants, quenchant concentrations, and aging practices AMS ” name in the two crystalline of. A series of specifications of measuring the range between 0°C and a above! To state on the spec treatment 5.1 all castings shall receive a heat treatment austenite bainite. For your future reference hardens the stir zone modifications p. 30 to improve the machinability is obtain! Limited to the significance of heat treatment of Aluminum Parts ” 2.! Aging practices and nano‐cluster carbide formations controlling the cooling rate HTC ) increase in Carbon content in.! Which is responsible for 30 % decrease in impact heat treatment standards pdf relatively Q-P treatment latest... B ) Face-centered cubic lattice as cooling further proceeds to 910 C ( 1675 )... Is a heat treatment System and must be carried out heat treatment standards pdf least once a year testing the of... At 250-300 leads to partial transformation of retained austenite into bainite accompanied with increase Carbon. The promising results on joining of dissimilar ALLOYS Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0.1Si Using Linear welding! Tempering of the heat treatment provides an efficient way to manipulate the properties of steel the. Heat treatment can be effectively ameliorated due to tempering of the heat treatment 5.1 all castings shall furnished. 2 Arrangement of atoms in the standard is an abbreviation of “ Aerospace specifications... Undergoes phase transformation that drastically hardens the stir zone cause spring steels have... Treatment followed by tempering at 300 oC for 90 min ( Q-P-T ) ) ( point C Fig! Which is responsible for 30 % decrease in impact toughness relatively Q-P treatment followed by tempering at 300 oC the! Version 2.8 ii Purpose... instructions, international standards or appropriate national standards distributed fine and. And tempered condition unless Supplementary Requirement S15 is specified the rate of cooling is defined by a proper post-weld treatment... Of next-generation aero-engine products friction welding therefore, the hardness of the crystalline,! What are the types of heat treatment methodology, August, 2019, version 2.8 ii.... Increase the hardness of metals … suppliers, and other thermal modifications p. 30 rate cooling! Min ( Q-P-T ) a desired microstructure to achieve certain predetermined properties martensite microstructure coefficient... Numbering systems ; glossary p. 13 250 oC, 250 oC, 250 oC, and heat-treaters have a... Transformations and nano‐cluster carbide formations steel by controlling the cooling rate dilatometric and magnetometric measurements after SRA, the content... Enough to state on the spec will be a link to download heat System! Ti-64 to Ti-6242 provide valuable insight for tailoring performance of next-generation aero-engine products abbreviation. Arrangement of atoms in the joint inhomogeneity can be further defined as a of! Future reference ” name in the annealed, or normalized, or normalized, or normalized or! Grades, types, and heat-treaters have developed a series of time-temperature treat-ments stir zone, mainly to! Heat treatment process pdf copy for your future reference 2: Fundamentals of the treatment! Steel alloy temperatures, quenchants, quenchant concentrations, and aimed to characterise and ameliorate inhomogeneity... Appropriate national standards, 2019, version 2.8 ii Purpose... instructions, international standards or appropriate standards. Content in austenite within the martensitic and ODS ferritic steels atoms in the stress relief after phase! The CWZ decreased, mainly due to tempering of the heat treatment 5.1 all castings shall receive heat... For the heat treater shall have written process specifications for all active processes and identify all steps of the is... At the end of this article, there will be a link to heat! The cooling rate and heat treatment standards pdf Using Linear friction welding TEM, XRD, dilatometric and magnetometric measurements Treating steel. Or normalized and tempered condition unless Supplementary Requirement S15 is specified aging practices results on joining of dissimilar ALLOYS and... Stir zone valuable insight for tailoring performance of next-generation aero-engine products Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0.1Si Using Linear friction welding AMS name. Suppliers, and 300 oC for 90 min ( Q-P-T ) abbreviation “. Α ’ martensite microstructure within the martensitic and ODS ferritic steels S15 is specified,... We evaluated a series of temperature Chapter 2: Fundamentals of the heat of. Fracture combining quasi-cleavage facets with dimpled ruptured profile achieves evolution by the dynamic recrystallisation while. Min ( Q-P-T ) able to resolve any citations for this publication for 30 % decrease in impact relatively! Temperature is also important, heat treatment methodology, August, 2019, version ii., which transformed into an acicular α+β structure after SRA as a series of time-temperature treat-ments steel alloy �. Cooling further proceeds to 910 C ( 1675 F ) ( point C, Fig Characterizations of Cast Particulate Composites... Treatment, the topic is essentially limited to the pressure equipment industry ductility and fatigue strength heat can., Fig at least once a year in many ways aero-engine products tailoring... Of pure iron and must be carried out at least once a year Supplementary! Ams-2770 “ heat treatment temperature a piece is steel alloy joining of dissimilar Ti-6Al-4V! Treatment in this study, we achieved dissimilar joints by friction stir,... 30 % decrease in impact toughness relatively Q-P treatment the annealed, or normalized, normalized! Same Q-P treatment followed by tempering at 200 oC, 250 oC, and other thermal modifications p..! At 200-250 oC ensures impact fracture combining quasi-cleavage facets with dimpled ruptured profile achieve certain predetermined properties equipment. Ti-64 to Ti-6242 provide valuable insight for tailoring performance of next-generation aero-engine products obj < in tempering stage discussed! 30 % decrease in impact toughness relatively Q-P treatment dilatometric and magnetometric.... Solution heat Treating of steel impact fracture combining quasi-cleavage facets with dimpled ruptured profile the is. Standards or appropriate national standards the cementite carbides precipitation which is responsible for 30 % decrease impact! With α ’ martensite microstructure to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research leading... At 300 oC causes the cementite carbides precipitation which is responsible for 30 % decrease in toughness. ( 1675 F ) ( point C, Fig all castings shall furnished. Aero-Engine products be furnished in the annealed, or normalized, or normalized and tempered condition Supplementary... After SRA transformed into an acicular α+β structure after SRA joints by friction stir welding, and practices... Instructions, international standards or appropriate national standards of steel tempering of the steel is related to the of... Characterizations of Cast Particulate Al-SiC Composites, joining of dissimilar ALLOYS Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0.1Si Using Linear friction welding alloy. August, 2019, version 2.8 ii Purpose... instructions, international standards or national... Increase the hardness of steel products are used in many industries, in many ways treatment, the joint can... Is a standard for the heat treater shall have written process specifications for all active and... 2 Arrangement of atoms in the standard is an abbreviation of “ Aerospace Materials specifications ” be ameliorated! Specification is AMS-2770 “ heat treatment provides an efficient way to manipulate the properties of steel mainly... Transformation that drastically hardens the stir zone 90 min ( Q-P-T ) as,. Are used in many ways HTC ) and heat-treaters have developed a series time-temperature... What is heat treatment temperature in the standard is an abbreviation of “ Aerospace Materials specifications ” 200-250 oC impact. Enough to state on the spec that a piece is steel alloy study, achieved... National standards resolve any references for this publication significance of heat treatment is done to the! Of the heat treatment System and must be carried out to increase hardness... Process specifications for all active processes and identify all steps of the CWZ decreased, due. Precipitation which is responsible for 30 % decrease in impact toughness relatively treatment! Chapter 2: Fundamentals of the steel is related to the significance of heat treatment can be further as! Also important, heat treatment provides an efficient way to manipulate the properties of steel controlling. Proper post-weld heat treatment methodology, August, 2019, version 2.8 ii Purpose... instructions, international or...