Values indicative of a combine group capacitance are then measured for each sensor group and assigned to a nominal CAP sensor, which is a member of the particular sensor group. For example, if capacitance C of the capacitor 951 changes, then fRO will change proportionally according to Equation (1). Processing device 810 may include internal oscillator/clocks 806 and communication block 808. The techniques described may constitute machine-executable instructions embodied within a machine (e.g., computer) readable medium, that when executed by a machine will cause the machine to perform the operations described. Small capacitor values may require very large resistors for reasonable timing. The capacitance Cs0~Cs3 can be used to adjust the sensitivity. FIG. In another embodiment, the capacitance sensor 801 may be configured to simultaneously scan the sensor elements, as opposed to being configured to sequentially scan the sensor elements as described above. The capacitor charging current (e.g., current source 952) and reset switch 953 are connected to the analog mux bus. So, reduce the capacitances Cs0 to Cs3 and you will get better sensitivity. The electrical component may include an oscillator or other means to convert a changed capacitance into a measured signal. In a process block 520, the measured value for current sensor group 605 is buffered. RAM 805 may be static RAM (âSRAMâ), and program flash 804 may be a non-volatile storage, which may be used to store firmware (e.g., control algorithms executable by processing core 802 to implement operations described herein such as the aforementioned decision algorithm). determine an approximate location of the user interaction based on the scanning. In a process block 720, a group scan (see process 500) is performed only on a portion of CAP sensors 320 localized about the approximate location of the user interaction determined in process block 715. Relaxation oscillator 900 further includes a selection circuit 930. 6A illustrates an embodiment where each sensor group includes three individual CAP sensors 320; however, it should be appreciated that sensor groups may include two or more CAP sensors 320. This should also improve capacitive sensing sensitivity. In other words, process 700 implements a coarse, but quick, search function using the discrete scan to determine an approximate location of a user interaction and then implements a slower, but more precise, find function using the group scan on a portion of circular slider array 315 to determine with greater accuracy and sensitivity the location of the user interaction. As in the case of CAP sensor 305, CAP sensor 405 can perform quick discrete scans of linear slider array 415 or more sensitive group scans of linear slider array 415. In some instances, it may be beneficial for processing device 810 to do both touch-sensor pad and keyboard control operations, thereby freeing up the embedded controller 860 for other housekeeping functions. Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. The range of Cs0~Cs3 value are 0~50pF. In an alternative embodiment, for example, processing device 810 may be a network processor having multiple processors including a core unit and multiple microengines. When a finger or conductive object is placed on a sensor element 951, the capacitance increases so the relaxation oscillator output signal 956 (FOUT) decreases. In this embodiment, the driver circuitry within CAP sensor circuit 305 continually charges and discharges each CAP sensor 320 by reciprocally driving and discharging a current onto CAP sensors 320. As the charging current piles charge onto the capacitor 951, the voltage across the capacitor increases with time as a function of Ic and its capacitance C. Equation (1) describes the relation between current, capacitance, voltage and time for a charging capacitor. The voltage on CSUM increases exponentially (and only slightly) with each clock cycle. My solution? 6B. The CSR may have an array of capacitive touch switches using a current-programmable relaxation oscillator, an analog multiplexer, digital counting functions, and high-level software routines to compensate for environmental and physical switch variations. Touchpad interface 140 is often used in notebooks to emulate the function of a personal computer (âPCâ) mouse. It is found that with the increase in surface area, the size of the pores also increases . CYPRESS SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION, CALIFORNIA, ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:LEE, MARK R.;SEGUINE, RYAN D.;REEL/FRAME:018093/0957;SIGNING DATES FROM 20060719 TO 20060721, ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:LEE, MARK R.;SEGUINE, RYAN D.;SIGNING DATES FROM 20060719 TO 20060721;REEL/FRAME:018093/0957, MORGAN STANLEY SENIOR FUNDING, INC., NEW YORK, PATENT SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:CYPRESS SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:028863/0870, SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:CYPRESS SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION;SPANSION LLC;REEL/FRAME:035240/0429, ASSIGNMENT AND ASSUMPTION OF SECURITY INTEREST IN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY;ASSIGNOR:MORGAN STANLEY SENIOR FUNDING, INC.;REEL/FRAME:050896/0366, PAYMENT OF MAINTENANCE FEE, 4TH YEAR, LARGE ENTITY (ORIGINAL EVENT CODE: M1551); ENTITY STATUS OF PATENT OWNER: LARGE ENTITY, Cypress Introduces PSoC(TM)-Based Capacitive Touch Sensor Solution. After sensitivity and linearity are calibrated, the capacitive sensor systems are placed in an environmental chamber where the temperature compensation circuitry is calibrated to minimize drift over the temperature range of 22°C to 35°C. Alternatively, selection circuit may be other circuitry outside the relaxation oscillator 900, or even outside the capacitance sensor 801 to select the sensor element to be measured. According to the datasheet (if you can name it that): The capacitance Cs0~Cs3 can be used to adjust the sensitivity. Placing a little magnet near its sensing head increase its sensitivity by several mms. a memory unit coupled to the processing device, the memory unit having stored therein instructions that when executed by the processing device cause the processing device to: electrically couple the capacitance sense electrodes of the capacitive sense array into a first group of a plurality of groups, each of the plurality of groups comprising two or more capacitance sense electrodes; electrically couple the capacitance sense electrodes of the capacitive sense array into a second group of the plurality of groups, wherein the first group and the second group of the plurality of groups are different groups and comprise at least one capacitance sense electrode in common; analyze at least the first single value and the second single value to determine a location of a user interaction with the capacitive array. The relaxation oscillator output signal 956 (FOUT) is fed to the digital counter 920 for measurement. The selection circuit 930 may be configured to sequentially select a sensor element of the plurality of sensor elements to provide the charge current and to measure the capacitance of each sensor element. FIG. Furthermore, it should be appreciated that a two dimensional array of linear slider array 415 may be used to implement a CAP sense touch pad. The digital block array may be coupled to a system bus. Once connected, to an individual CAP sensor 320 or to a group of CAP sensors 320, capacitive sensor circuit 305 can measure the capacitance of the individual or group of CAP sensors 320 to determine whether its/their capacitance has deviated by a threshold amount for a threshold period of time, thus indicating that a user activation should be registered in software (i.e., acknowledged in software such that an appropriate action or function is executed). The behavioral level code, the RTL code, the netlist, and the circuit layout all represent various levels of abstraction to describe capacitance sensor 801. In process block 715, an approximate location of the user interaction is determined based on the measured values obtained from the discrete scan in process block 705. adding this pattern will increase the sensitivity of the sensor. Process 500 will be described with reference to FIGS. In both methods, the capacitive information from the sensing process provides a profile of the presence of the conductive object to the sensing device in each dimension. The illustrated embodiment of linear slider array 415 includes an array of CAP sensors 420A-320G (collectively 420). EMC Design considerations for PsoCâ¢ CapSenseâ¢ Applications. Processing device 810 may also include memory, such as random access memory (RAM) 805 and program flash 804. Can an exiting US president curtail access to Air Force One from the new president? Again, process 700 is described with reference to circular slider array 315, but is equally applicable to linear slider array 415 or a planar touch pad array (not illustrated). Estimating and measuring PCB capacitances may be difficult; the oscillator-reset time may add to the oscillator period (especially at higher frequencies); and there may be some variation to the magnitude of the IDAC output current with operating frequency. Processing device 810 may reside on a common carrier substrate such as, for example, an integrated circuit (IC) die substrate, a multi-chip module substrate, or the like. USPTO Non-Final Rejection for U.S. Appl. The value of Cs0~Cs3 use smaller, then the sensitivity will be better. And what can be the alternatives for TTP224??? Alternatively, processing device 810 may also be coupled to embedded controller 860 to communicate with the external components, such as host 850. Once CAP sensor circuit 305 senses that one or more CAP sensors 320 are being actuated (e.g., threshold change in a baseline capacitance for a threshold duration), then the physical location of the user interaction on circular slider array 315 may be determined by analyzing the values measured by CAP sensor circuit 305 to determine which CAP sensors 320 are being actuated. In an alternative embodiment, CAP sensor circuit 305 may include multiple relaxation oscillators and I/O interface 310 may be capable of coupling each relaxation oscillator to a different sensor group at the same time. assigning the first single value to a particular capacitance sense electrode within the first group; and. Capacitive sensor arrays may also be used to implement position sensors. Although FIG. Similarly, current sensor group 605 at time t1 includes two common CAP sensors 320 with current sensor group 605 at time t2. Did Trump himself order the National Guard to clear out protesters (who sided with him) on the Capitol on Jan 6? In a process block 515, CAP sensor circuit 305 measures the combined capacitance of current sensor group 605. In another exemplary embodiment, interfacing may be done using a universal serial bus (USB) interface directly coupled to host 850 via host interface line 851. FIG. The range of Cs0~Cs3 value are 0~50pF. One skilled in the relevant art will recognize, however, that the techniques described herein can be practiced without one or more of the specific details, or with other methods, components, materials, etc. Cut a second piece of cardboard at roughly 100 x 100 mm, and paste foil on one side. The relaxation oscillator outputs a relaxation oscillator clock signal (FOUT 956) having a frequency (fRO) dependent upon capacitance C of the capacitor 951 and charging current Ic. Capacitive sensors can form a cheaper way to build a proximity antenna than using infra-red technology and consume less power. Relaxation oscillator 900 is formed by the capacitance to be measured on capacitor sensors 951, a charging current source 952, a comparator 953, and a reset switch 954. It is not necessary that the sensitivity will increase by increasing the surface area. Accordingly, the current source 952 is a current DAC or IDAC. Try a different material. There is no gap between pad and acrylic. As capacitive sense technology is introduced into other more durable consumer products, such as white goods (e.g., kitchen appliances), the overlay material that protects the capacitive sensors must typically be thicker and more durable to protect the underlying electronics from harsher environments. Within the last decade or so, it has become difficult indeed to imagine a world without touch-sensitive electronics. 9 illustrates one possible embodiment of capacitance sensor 801 implemented with a relaxation oscillator circuit 900. Is there any difference between "take the initiative" and "show initiative"? FIG. 5, 6A, and 6B. As illustrated, capacitance sensor 801 may be integrated into processing device 810. The relaxation oscillator begins by charging the capacitor sensor 951 from a ground potential or zero voltage and continues to pile charge on the capacitor 951 at a fixed charging current Ic until the voltage across the capacitor 951 at node 970 reaches a reference voltage or threshold voltage, VTH 955. To learn more, see our tips on writing great answers. PATENTED CASE, Owner name: Prof.Dr.Dr.h.c. The above description of illustrated embodiments of the invention, including what is described in the Abstract, is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the invention to the precise forms disclosed. When the output of PWM 921 is asserted (e.g., goes high), the count starts by releasing the capture control. 3 is a diagram illustrating a capacitive sense interface including a circular slider array, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. As mentioned, I/O interface 310 can be configured to sequentially couple capacitance sensor circuit 305 to discrete or individual CAP sensor 320 to perform a âdiscrete scanâ of circular slider array 315. It should be appreciated though that the nominal CAP sensor need not be the middle CAP sensor and in the case where each sensor group includes an even number of CAP sensors 320 there may not be a physically middle CAP sensor. In a process block 505, the group scan is commenced. This relation ship is mostly linear. 1C illustrates a conventional touch pad interface. In one embodiment, CAP sensor circuit 305 includes driver circuitry of a relaxation oscillator. value of CCPC capacitor has to be increased to increase the sensitivity. How to connect capacitive touch sensor to Arduino? Selection circuit 930 is coupled to the plurality of sensor elements 951(1)-951(N), the reset switch 954, the current source 952, and the comparator 953. a user interface comprising capacitance sense electrodes of a capacitive sense array coupled to the processing device, wherein the capacitive sense array is configured to sense capacitance indicative of a touch proximate the capacitive sense array; and. At times t1, t2, and t3 the measured value increases as the degree of coincidence between user interaction location 610 and current sensor groups 605 increases. 6A illustrates eight different current sensor groups 605 during eight different instants in time t0 to t7. A button is a single sensor and is interpreted as a ... which may increase the occurrence of Electrostatic ... the user may place a contact anywhere over the sensor area with no loss in sensitivity, as long as the entire touch area is kept within the perimeter of the touch sensor. The capacitance variation may be sent as a signal to a coupled processing device (not illustrated) for analysis. Alternatively, processing device 810 may communicate to external components, such as host 850 using industry standard interfaces, such as USB, PS/2, inter-integrated circuit (I2C) bus, or system packet interfaces (SPI). By monitoring capacitance sensor 200 for a baseline capacitance deviation ÎC, capacitive sensor activations can be determined and registered within software. In an exemplary embodiment, system 800 may operate in both standard-mouse compatible and enhanced modes. In the present work, we have studied the sensitivity of a capacitive trace moisture sensor for measuring moisture in ppm. CYPRESS SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION, CALIFORNIA, Free format text: Processing device 810 may also include an analog block array (not illustrated). PATENT SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:CYPRESS SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:028863/0870, Free format text: 2 illustrates a user finger 205 interacting with a capacitance sensor 200, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. In an embodiment where analog values are being sequentially sensed for sensor groups, a more precise location may be interpolated from the values. Bao et al. Embodiments of a method, apparatus, and system for implementing a capacitive sense user interface are described herein. The rows may be scanned simultaneously, and the columns may be scanned simultaneously. In a process block 705, the individual CAP sensors 320 of circular slider array 315 are discretely scanned. Assignors: CYPRESS SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION, SPANSION LLC, ASSIGNMENT AND ASSUMPTION OF SECURITY INTEREST IN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY. Using a bigger triggering object can also increase sensitivity. 5 is a flow chart illustrating a process 500 to group scan a CAP sense interface, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. In particular, the output of comparator 953 asserts a clock signal FOUT 956 (e.g., FOUT 956 goes high), which enables the reset switch 954. site design / logo © 2021 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. In order to improve sensitivity and resolution, multiple periods of the oscillator are counted with the PWM 921. Sensitivity: The most sensitive measurement is made on the ±1 volt range where the noise is only 41.5 µV rms whereas the sensitivity of the 5 volt range is 138.8 µV rms. Otherwise exchange the capacitors on the board. 4 is a diagram illustrating a CAP sense interface 400 including a linear slider, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. The IDAC output current may be set by an 8-bit value provided by the processing device 810, such as from the processing core 802. 0 \$\begingroup\$ ... Capacitive sensor circuit. With some industry offerings, series resistance of up to 10kW (Kilo-ohms) will still give good performance. 1B illustrates a conventional linear slider interface 130. The values indicative of the combined group capacitances or capacitance changes obtained from the localized group scan can then be used to more precisely, and with greater sensitivity, interpolate the location of the user interaction with circular slider array 315. Capacitance sensor 801 may be integrated into the IC of processing device 810, or alternatively, in a separate IC. From the Capacitive Sensor Page on the Arduino website, it states the following: The capacitiveSensor method toggles a microcontroller send pin to a new state and then waits for the receive pin to change to the same state as the send pin. The illustrated embodiment of capacitance sensor 801 includes relaxation oscillator circuit 900, an analog multiplexer (âMUXâ) bus 901, a sensor array 910, and a digital counter 920. [36,37] proposed to prepare a pyramid-shaped dielectric layer by using an etched silicon wafer as a template with a sensitivity of 0.55 kPa −1. We propose an analytical method to determine the sensitivity distribution of any capacitive sensor structure. 6B is a diagram illustrating a group scan of a linear slider array, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. Accordingly, equations (2) and (3) below describe that a change in frequency between FOUT 956 and REF CLK is proportional to a change in capacitance of the capacitor 951. In order to find these small changes, it may be necessary to count for a considerable time. In my case, where 0.5 mm more of gap make the TTP223 unable to work, because I designed such a small pad. FIGS. It should be noted that capacitor sensor 951 are representative of the capacitance measured on a sensor element of a CAP sensor array. For example, behavioral level code describing capacitance sensor 801, or portions thereof, may be generated using a hardware descriptive language, such as VHDL or Verilog, and stored to a machine-accessible medium (e.g., CD-ROM, hard disk, floppy disk, etc.). Capacitive sense interfaces may assume a variety of shapes and sizes. Alternatively, other methods for scanning known by those of ordinary skill in the art may be used to scan the sensing device. How can I keep improving after my first 30km ride? 1C illustrates a conventional touch pad interface 140. Assignors: SEGUINE, RYAN D., LEE, MARK R. Assigned to MORGAN STANLEY SENIOR FUNDING, INC. Assignors: CYPRESS SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:CYPRESS SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION;SPANSION LLC;REEL/FRAME:035240/0429, Free format text: For example, by detecting the capacitance variation of each sensor element, the position of the changing capacitance can be pinpointed. It should be noted that there are various known methods for measuring capacitance. ASSIGNMENT AND ASSUMPTION OF SECURITY INTEREST IN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY;ASSIGNOR:MORGAN STANLEY SENIOR FUNDING, INC.;REEL/FRAME:050896/0366, Free format text: Sensors within the first group ; and sensor ) developments value indicative of a MEMS based capacitive. In other instances, well-known structures, or a planar touch pad array also increase sensitivity the... 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